Sudan nation profile – BBC Information

Some key dates in Sudan’s historical past:

2500-1500BC – Kerma kingdom, based mostly within the southern a part of Nubia, present-day northern and central Sudan. It’s lastly absorbed into the New Kingdom of Egypt.

1550-1069BC – A lot of Sudan is a part of the New Kingdom of Egypt.

1070BC – 350AD – Following the late Bronze Age collapse of civilisations throughout the japanese Mediterranean, the Kingdom of Kush emerges as a Nubian state centred on the confluences of the Blue Nile and White Nile rivers.

350-1500 – Space sees sequence of medieval Christian kingdoms; Nobatia, Makuria, Alodia, and Daju.

639-641 – Muslim Arabs conquer Byzantine Egypt after which try and invade Nubia however are defeated.

14th and fifteenth Centuries – Bedouin tribes overrun most of Sudan.

1504-1821 – Sultanate of Sennar or Blue Sultanate, based mostly in Sudan, north-western Eritrea and western Ethiopia.

1821 – Ottoman ruler of Egypt, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, conquers northern Sudan. Though technically underneath the Ottoman Empire, Muhammad Ali types himself as Khedive of a just about unbiased Egypt.

1881– Muhammad Ahmad, the Mahdi or Guided One, leads a profitable struggle towards Ottoman-Egyptian army rule in Sudan.

1884-85 – Siege of Khartoum. The British-appointed governor, Common Gordon is killed when town falls to Mahdist forces.

1885 – Muhammad Ahmad dies.

Nineties – Britain seeks to re-establish their management over Sudan, nominally within the title of the Egyptian Khedive, however in actuality as a British colony. Britain fears different colonial powers would reap the benefits of Sudan’s instability to accumulate territory beforehand annexed to Egypt.

1896-98 – Common Kitchener leads army campaigns, culminating in a decisive victory on the Battle of Omdurman in September 1898.

1899-1955 – Sudan is underneath joint British-Egyptian rule. In actuality, Sudan is successfully administered as a British colony.

1952 – Egyptian revolution triggers a transfer in the direction of Sudanese independence. Egypt and Britain permit each Sudanese areas, north and south, to vote on independence.

1956 – Sudan turns into unbiased.

1955-1972 – First Sudanese Civil Struggle, between north and south over calls for for extra regional autonomy by southern Sudan area. Some 500,000 are estimated to have been killed. A 1972 peace settlement fails to satisfactorily dispel tensions.

1969 – Colonel Gaafar Nimeiry carries out a coup. Parliament and political events are abolished.

1977 – Restricted political pluralism launched

1983 – Numeiry introduces Sharia Islamic regulation.

1983-2005 – Second Sudanese Civil Struggle. Between the central Sudanese authorities and the Sudan Individuals’s Liberation Military. Largely a continuation of the primary civil struggle. The struggle results in the independence of South Sudan in 2011. Some two million folks die because of struggle, famine and illness attributable to the battle.

1989 – Colonel Omar al-Bashir carries out a army coup. Al-Bashir appoints himself president in 1993

2003-2020 Struggle in Darfur between the Sudan Liberation Motion (SLM) and the Justice and Equality Motion (JEM) insurgent teams towards the federal government, which they are saying is oppressing Darfur’s non-Arab inhabitants. The federal government responds with a marketing campaign of ethnic cleaning towards Darfur’s non-Arabs. The UN estimates as much as 300,000 are killed within the combating.

2009 – Worldwide Legal Court docket points an arrest warrant for President Bashir on expenses of struggle crimes and crimes towards humanity referring to the battle in Darfur.

2011 – South Sudan positive aspects independence following years of struggle with the central authorities in Khartoum.

2019 – Military ousts President Bashir after months of protests towards his rule.

2020 – Sudan indicators peace take care of the Sudan Revolutionary Entrance (SRF), a coalition of insurgent teams from the western area of Darfur and the southern states of South Kordofan and Blue Nile, to finish the combating in Dafur.

2023Energy wrestle throughout the army authorities sees months of widespread combating between the common military and members of the paramilitary Fast Help Forces (RSF). Lots of die and a few 5 million individuals are pressured to flee their properties.

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