Chad nation profile – BBC Information

A largely semi-desert nation, Chad is wealthy in gold and uranium and stands to learn from its recently-acquired standing as an oil-exporting state.

Chad’s post-independence historical past has been marked by instability and violence, stemming largely from pressure between the primarily Arab-Muslim north and the predominantly Christian and animist south.

Chad turned an oil-producing nation in 2003, with the completion of a $4bn pipeline linking its oilfields to terminals on the Atlantic coast.

Nevertheless, it suffers from insufficient infrastructure, and inside battle with rebels within the north, exacerbated by a jihadist insurgency throughout the Sahel area and Lake Chad Basin.


  • Capital: N’Djamena
  • Space: 1,284,000 sq km
  • Inhabitants: 17.9 million
  • Languages: French, Arabic
  • Life expectancy: 51 years (males) 54 years (ladies)


President: Common Mahamat Idriss Déby Itno

Picture supply, Getty Photographs

Chad’s army ruler Mahamat Déby was declared the official winner of the Could 2024 presidential elections, legitimising his grip on energy.

Gen Déby received 61.3% of the vote, in line with the state’s election physique, citing provisional outcomes, whereas his closest rival, Prime Minister Succes Masra, received 18.5%.

Mr Masra had earlier declared that he had received a “resounding victory” within the first spherical of voting, and that victory had been stolen “from the individuals”.

Gen Déby, 40, was put in as Chad’s chief by the army after his father, Idriss Déby Itno, was killed throughout a battle with insurgent forces in April 2021.

His victory implies that the Déby household’s 34-year-rule will proceed.

Chad turns into the primary of the international locations the place the army seized energy in West and Central Africa lately to carry elections and restore civilian rule.

However critics say with the election of Gen Déby, little has modified.

Picture supply, Getty Photographs

Picture caption, Lake Chad is a crucial supply of water for thousands and thousands of individuals within the 4 international locations surrounding it

Though legally there’s freedom of the press, in observe that is restricted. Criticism of the federal government is usually permitted however reporters generally self-censor to keep away from reprisals.

Media shops can have their very own editorial line, however investigative reporting that’s vital of senior authorities officers and their shut associates will not be tolerated, says Reporters With out Borders (RSF).


Picture supply, Getty Photographs

Picture caption, The distant Ennedi mountains within the Sahara, in northeastern Chad.

Some key dates in Chad’s historical past:

1883-93 – Sudanese adventurer Rabih al-Zubayr conquers the kingdoms of Ouadai, Baguirmi and Kanem-Bornu, located in what’s now Chad.

1900 – France defeats al-Zubayr’s military, finishing its conquest in 1913. Chad turns into a colony.

1946 – Chad turns into a French abroad territory with its personal territorial parliament and illustration within the French Nationwide Meeting.

1960 – Chad turns into impartial.

1963 – The banning of political events triggers violent opposition within the Muslim north.

1966 – Northern revolt develops right into a fully-fledged guerrilla struggle.

1973 – French troops assist put down the northern revolt, however Frolinat continues guerrilla operations all through the Nineteen Seventies and Nineteen Eighties with the assistance of weapons provided by Libya.

1977 – Libya annexes the Aouzou strip, and sends in troops in 1980 to help President Goukouni Oueddei in his combat in opposition to the Military of the North, led by a former prime minister, Hissene Habré.

1981 – Libyan troops withdraw at Oueddei’s request.

1982 – Habré seizes energy. He’s later accused of mass political killings throughout his rule.

1983 – The Organisation of African Unity recognises Habré’s authorities, however Oueddei’s forces proceed resistance within the north with Libyan assist.

1987 – The mixed troops of Frolinat and the Chadian authorities, with French and US help, pressure Libya out of your complete northern area other than the Aouzou strip and components of Tibesti.

1990 – Coup chief Hissene Habre toppled by former ally Idriss Déby.

1994 – Worldwide Courtroom of Justice rejects Libyan claims on Aouzou and guidelines that Chad had sovereignty over the strip.

1996 – Déby wins Chad’s first multi-party presidential election.

1998 – The Motion for Democracy and Justice in Chad, led by Déby’s former Defence Minister, Youssouf Togoimi, begins armed riot in opposition to the federal government.

2006 – Rebels in search of to oust President Déby battle authorities forces exterior the capital. Tons of are killed. Chad cuts diplomatic ties with Sudan, accusing it of backing the rebels.

State of emergency imposed in jap areas bordering Sudan’s Darfur area after a spate of ethnic violence.

2007 – UN Safety Council authorises a UN-EU peacekeeping pressure to guard civilians from violence spilling over from Darfur in neighbouring Sudan.

2009 – Eight insurgent teams unite to type new insurgent alliance, the Union of Resistance Forces (UFR). EU peacekeepers in jap Chad hand over to a brand new, bigger UN pressure often called Minurcat.

2010 – President Déby and Sudan’s Omar al-Bashir maintain talks in Khartoum, their first assembly for six years; President al-Bashir says Sudan is prepared for full normalisation of ties.

Chad and Sudan comply with deploy joint pressure to watch state of affairs alongside their shared border. Chad-Sudan border reopens seven years after Darfur battle compelled its closure.

2012 – Chad calls on international locations neighbouring northern Nigeria to arrange a joint army pressure to sort out Boko Haram militants.

Senegal, African Union comply with arrange particular tribunal to attempt Chad’s former chief Hissene Habré.

Chief of insurgent group FPR, Abdel Kader Baba Ladde, surrenders.

2016 – Hissene Habré is discovered responsible of crimes in opposition to humanity and sentenced to life in jail by an African Union-backed courtroom in Senegal.

2021 – President Déby dies throughout army operation in opposition to insurgent group.

2023 – Chad plans for a referendum on a brand new structure geared toward returning it to civilian rule.

Picture supply, Getty Photographs

Picture caption, In 2016 Hissene Habre was convicted of struggle crimes, crimes in opposition to humanity and torture throughout eight years of repression within the Nineteen Eighties

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